The abundance and prosperity of the fertile land around the river Nile brought to early the agriculturalists for the first time in human history the chance to settle, store food and crops and begin long-term planning. This helped to establish structure of ancient Egyptian society, which was ruled by the Pharaohs, who started off as those in charge of managing and guarding the surplus of produced crops for feeding masses and saving it for leaner times.
The importance of agriculture for Egypt is still high today; almost 12 percent of the GDP is generated from the agricultural sector. Even today, the majority of the Egyptian workforce is employed in the agricultural sector.
Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East and North African region. The food self-sufficiency ratio for Egypt is 88 percent. This means, that Egypt belongs to those countries that roughly produce the same amount of food that they consume. At the same time, it is able to export some if its agricultural production. Between 2014 and 2016 the average value of food production amounted to approximately 238 U.S. dollars per person. At the same time about 10 million people in Egypt are suffering severe food insecurity.
The leading crop produced in the Egyptian agricultural sector was sugar cane and leading livestock were sheep and chicken